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 Publications of year 1997
 Thesis
1. Fred Rivard. Évolution du comportement dans les langages à classes réflexifs dynamiquement typés. PhD thesis, Université de Nantes, 1997. Note: Prepared at École des Mines de Nantes.

 Articles in journal or book chapters
1. Pierre Cointe, Isabelle Borne, and P. Krief. Smalltalk à l'École des Mines de Nantes. L'Objet, 3(4), 1997. Keyword(s): teaching, research, reflection, object-oriented programming.
Abstract:
 Créée en 1990 par le ministère de l'industrie, l'École des mines de Nantes est, après celles de Paris, Saint-Etienne, Alès et Douai, la cinquième de la lignée. Pour les premiers enseignants-chercheurs informaticiens venus rejoindre Nantes pour constituer l'ossature du futur département informatique, l'intérêt principal résidait dans l'aventure et le challenge intellectuel qu'implique la création d'une nouvelle école. Il s'agissait en fait de tirer le meilleur parti de cette opportunité rare qui consiste à décliner un nouveau programme pédagogique, à mettre en oeuvre de nouvelles équipes de recherche, et finalement à élaborer une politique de valorisation industrielle en phase avec la demande et les besoins du marché. Il se trouve que l'approche objet en général et la culture Smalltalk en particulier, "dopés" par l'implication d'OTI Inc, ont joué un rôle central dans la mise en place du triptyque enseignement, recherche, transfert de technologie à l'EMNantes, mais également dans la région des Pays de la Loire.

 Conference articles
1. A. A. Holzbacher, M. Périn, and Mario Südholt. Modeling railway control systems using graph grammars: a case study. In 2nd International Conference on COORDINATION, volume 1282 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, September 1997. Springer-Verlag. Note: Long version published as INRIA TR 3210: click ftp://ftp.inria.fr/INRIA/publication/publi-ps-gz/RR/RR-3210.pdf.gz. Keyword(s): software architecture, graph grammar, software evolution.
Abstract:
 In this paper we develop in three phases a railway control system. We are mainly concerned with the \emph{software architecture} of the control system and its \emph{dynamic evolution}; we do not discuss here the implementation details of the components forming the control system. First, we informally discuss our design proposal for the architecture of the control system: a hierarchy of controllers whose leaves are local controllers connected in a network that mimics the underlying railway topology. Second, we formally define by means of particular \emph{graph grammars} a style of software architectures for the railway control system consisting of two complementary \emph{views} and ensuring several desirable properties by construction. The dynamic evolution of the architecture is modelled by a set of \emph{coordination rules} which define graph transformations and are \emph{verified} w.r.t. to the graph grammar. Third, using a coordination rule as a formal specification of a dynamic modification of the railway control system, we derive its implementation in ConCoord, a programming environment for concurrent coordinated programming. With regard to software engineering, the two first phases belong to the system design while the third one forms the first implementation step.

2. Luke Hornof and Jacques Noyé. Accurate Binding-Time Analysis for Imperative Languages: Flow, Context and Return Sensitivity. In ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Partial Evaluation and Semantics-Based Program Manipulation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pages 63-73, June 1997. ACM Press. Keyword(s): program specialization, partial evaluation, binding-time analysis, forward and backward analyses.
Abstract:
 In order to exploit specialization opportunities that exist in programs written by researchers outside of the programming language community, a partial evaluator needs to effectively treat existing realistic applications. Our empirical studies have demonstrated that real-sized applications extensively use non-liftable values such as pointers and data structures. Therefore, it is essential that the binding-time analysis accurately treats non-liftable values. To achieve this accuracy, we introduce the notion of use sensitivity, and present a use-sensitive binding-time analysis for C programs which is obtained by a forward analysis followed by a backward analysis. This analysis has been implemented and integrated into our partial evaluator for C, called Tempo.

3. Luke Hornof, Jacques Noyé, and Charles Consel. Effective Specialization of Realistic Programs via Use Sensitivity. In P. Van Hentenryck, editor, Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS'97, volume 1302 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Paris, France, pages 293-314, September 1997. Springer-Verlag. Keyword(s): program specialization, partial evaluation, binding-time analysis.
Abstract:
 Since a binding-time analysis determines how an off-line partial evaluator will specialize a program, the accuracy of the binding-time information directly determines the degree of specialization. We have designed and implemented a binding-time analysis for an imperative language, and integrated it into our partial evaluator for C, called Tempo. This binding-time analysis includes a number of new features, flow-, context-, and return-sensitivity not available in any existing partial evaluator for an imperative language, which are critical when specializing existing programs such as operating system components.

4. Thomas Ledoux. Implementing Proxy Objects in a Reflective ORB. In ECOOP'97 workshop : CORBA: Implementation, Use and Evaluation'', Jyvaskyla, Finland, June 1997. Keyword(s): proxy, reflection, distributed environments, separation of concerns, flexibility.
Abstract:
 In this short paper, we experiment reflective techniques dealing with the implemention of an ORB. We focus on a specific problem - the proxy representation - in order to emphasize the major advantages of the reflection, i.e. flexibility and reusability. More generally, in the context of the distributed computing, reflective languages provide a dynamic model allowing instrospection and modification of the policies and the mechanisms of distribution.

5. Annya Romanczuk-Réquilé and Isabelle Borne. Objectifying a Merise analysis using transformation rules. In S. Demeyer and H. Gall, editors, ESEC/FSE '97 Workshop on Object-Oriented Reengineering, number TUV-1841-97-10 of Technical Report, August 1997. Technische Universität Wien. Keyword(s): migration, legacy systems, restructuring, objectifying.
Abstract:
 The main goal of this project was to design a semi-automatic tool which, from a Merise analysis schema, produces an OMT analysis schema. This work was based on a real-world case provided by a company wishing to migrate to object-oriented techniques in order to improve its maintenance process and software quality. We extracted translation and transformation rules, in a systematic way, from the existing Merise analysis of the case study. A comparison of both methods led to define a set of automatic rules and a set of concepts for which there is no correspondence between the two analysis representations.

 Internal reports
1. Jacques Malenfant. Abstraction, encapsulation et réflexion dans les langages à prototypes. Habilitation à diriger des recherches, December 1997.

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